**WARNING: LONG POST**

tl;dr Turing started it, Computational model based on neurons, Math magic, GPU magic

The *Turing Machine *is perhaps the most well known computational model out there. It is the theoretical basis of a modern computer which is one of if not the most important inventions of man. The Turing Machine however, is not perfect. There are some problem that are hard to solve using the Turing Machine, that is the problems that are in but not in *; *assuming of course that .

Because of this problem, people started to look for ways around this problem. Alan Turing himself wrote papers, both published and unpublished, to move this effort forward. In one of his unpublished papers, he proposed two types of randomly connected neural networks with one key feature being *the possibility of learning and training it to solve problems *[1]; sound familiar? The same year he wrote about the former, he also wrote a paper proposing *genetical or evolutionary search *[1]. But perhaps the most important proposal Turing had in this effort is his idea of a machine beyond the Turing machine, this machine he dubbed the *O-Machine* which is basically a Turing Machine with an oracle that can solve any decision problem within a class of problems, such as , for free [1].

**FUN FACT!**

The paper where Turing proposed neural networks wasn’t published because his boss at the time dismissed it as a “schoolboy essay”. Do you know who his boss was? Sir Charles Darwin, not the Charles Darwin writer of *The Origin of Species*, but rather his grandson [1].

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