Symmetry in Arabic Calligraphy

“Arabic calligraphy integrates a cultural language with the language of geometry. The fluidity of Arabic script offer indefinite possibilities for designing calligraphic expressions, even within a single word, since letters can be stretched and transformed in numerous ways to create different motifs.
Calligraphic compositions have either true symmetry as a result of applying isometric transformations to a motif, or an implied symmetry resulting from fitting an expression within a symmetrical organisation. Symmetric calligraphic expressions possess either rotational symmetry with 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8-centers of rotation, or bilateral symmetry about a vertical reflection axis.”